Hazardous Materials Incident
Chemicals are a natural and important part of our environment. Even though we often do not think about it, we use chemicals every day.
Chemicals help us keep our food fresh and our bodies clean. They help our plants to grow and fuel our cars. And chemicals make it possible for us to live longer, healthier lives. Under certain conditions, chemicals can be poisonous or have a harmful effect on your health. Some chemicals which are safe, and even helpful in small amounts, can be harmful in larger quantities or under certain conditions.
Chemical accidents do happen ... at home and in the community, and Be Ready Utah wants you to be prepared.
To survive a hazardous materials incident it's important to learn and practice the appropriate protective actions of shelter-in-place and evacuation. You will find the steps to shelter-in-place and evacuation in the block below.
If you are exposed to, or contaminated with, chemicals or other hazardous materials then seek medical attention immediately.
How You May Be Exposed To A Chemical
You may be exposed to a chemical in three ways:
- Breathing the chemical
- Swallowing contaminated food, water or medication
- Touching the chemical, or coming into contact with clothing or things which have touched the chemical.
Remember, you may be exposed to chemicals even though you may not be able to see or smell anything unusual.
If you are contaminated by a chemical agent, decontamination guidelines are as follows:
- Use extreme caution when helping others who have been exposed to chemical agents.
- Remove all clothing and other items in contact with the body. Contaminated clothing normally removed over the head should be cut off to avoid contact with the eyes, nose, and mouth. Put contaminated clothing and items into a plastic bag and seal it. Decontaminate hands using soap and water. Remove eyeglasses or contact lenses. Put glasses in a pan of household bleach to decontaminate them, and then rinse and dry.
- Flush eyes with water.
- Gently wash face and hair with soap and water before thoroughly rinsing with water.
- Decontaminate other body areas likely to have been contaminated. Blot (do not swab or scrape) with a cloth soaked in soapy water and rinse with clear water.
- Change into uncontaminated clothes. Clothing stored in drawers or closets is likely to be uncontaminated.
- Proceed to a medical facility for screening and professional treatment.
Chemical Accidents Can Be Prevented
Many people think of chemicals as only those substances used in manufacturing processes. But chemicals are found everywhere - in our kitchens, medicine cabinets, basements and garages. In fact, most chemical accidents occur in our own homes. And they can be prevented.
Children and Poisoning
The most common home chemical emergencies involve small children eating medicines. Experts in the field of chemical manufacturing suggest that taking hazardous materials out of sight could eliminate up to 75% of all poisoning of small children.
Keep all medicines, cosmetics, cleaning products, and other household chemicals out of sight and out of reach of children. If your child should eat or drink a non-food substance, find those containers immediately and take them to the phone. Call Poison Control or 9-1-1. Follow their instructions carefully. Often the first aid advice found on containers may not be appropriate. So, do not give anything by mouth until you have been advised by medical professionals.
Home Product Precautions
Other home accidents can result from trying to improve the way a product works by adding one substance to another, not following directions for use of a product or by improper storage or disposal of a chemical.
The first precaution you can take is to avoid mixing common household chemical products. Some combinations of these products, such as ammonia and bleach, can create toxic gases.
A second important precaution is to always read the directions before using a new product. Some products should not be used in a small confined space to avoid inhaling dangerous vapors. Other products should not be used without gloves and eye protection to help prevent the chemical from touching your body. Read and follow the directions.
Another effective way to protect yourself and your family is to store chemical products properly. Non-food products should be stored tightly closed in their original container so you can always identify the contents of each container, and how to properly use the product.
Never smoke while using household chemicals. Do not use hair spray, cleaning solutions, paint products or pesticides near the open flame of an appliance, pilot light, lighted candle, fireplace, wood burning stove, etc. Although you may not be able to see or smell them, vapor particles in the air could catch fire or explode.
If you should spill a chemical, clean it up immediately with some rags, being careful to protect your eyes and skin. Allow the fumes in the rags to evaporate outdoors in a safe place, then dispose of them by wrapping them in a newspaper and then placing them in a sealed plastic bag. Dispose of these materials with your trash. If you do not have a fire extinguisher, buy one that is labeled for A, B, and C class fires and keep it handy.
Buy only as much of a chemical as you think you will use. If you have any product left over, try to give it to someone who will use it. Take care to dispose of it properly. Improper disposal can result in harm to yourself or members of your family, accidentally contaminate your local water supply or harm other people. It is also important to dispose of products properly to preserve the environment and protect wildlife. Plus, some products can be recycled and further protect our environment.
Many household chemicals can be taken to a household hazardous waste collection facility. Many health departments schedule hazardous waste collection events where they accept pesticides, fertilizers, household cleaners, oil-based paints, drain and pool cleaners, antifreeze and brake fluid.
Major Chemical Emergencies
A major chemical emergency is an accident which releases a hazardous amount of a chemical into the environment. Accidents can happen underground, on railroad tracks or highways, and at manufacturing plants. These accidents sometimes result in a fire or explosion, but many times you can not see or smell anything unusual.
How You May Be Notified Of A Major Chemical Emergency
In the event of a major chemical emergency, you will be notified by the authorities. To get your attention, a siren could sound, you may be called by telephone, or emergency personnel may drive by and give instructions over a loudspeaker. Officials could even come to your door.
Listen carefully to radio or television emergency alerts, and strictly follow instructions. Your life could depend on it.
You Will Be Told:
- The type of health hazard
- The area affected
- How to protect yourself
- Evacuation routes (if necessary)
- Shelter locations
- Type and location of medical facilities
- And the phone numbers to call if you need extra help.
Do not call the EMS or 9-1-1, for information. Dial these numbers only for a possible life threatening emergency.
One of the basic instructions you may be given in a chemical emergency is to shelter-in-place. This is a precaution aimed to keep you and your family safe while remaining in your home. If you are told to shelter-in-place, take your children and pets indoors immediately.
While gathering your family, you can provide a minimal amount of protection to your breathing by covering your mouth and nose with a damp cloth.
- Close and lock exterior doors and all windows in your home
- Turn off all fans, heating and air conditioning systems
- Close the fireplace damper
- Go to an above ground room (not the basement) with the fewest windows and doors.
- Wet some towels and jam them in the crack under the doors. Apply duct tape around doors, windows, exhaust fans or vents. Use plastic sheeting or garbage bags to cover windows, outlets and heat registers.
- If you are told there is danger of explosion, close the window shades, blinds or curtains. To avoid injury, stay away from the windows.
- Stay in the room and listen to your radio until you are told all is safe or you are told to evacuate.
Visit the Shelter-In-Place page for more details.
Authorities may decide to evacuate an area for your protection. Again, it is important to stay calm, listen carefully and follow all instructions.
If you are told to evacuate, listen to your radio to make sure the evacuation order applies to you and to understand if you are to evacuate immediately or if you have time to pack some essentials. Do not use your telephone.
If you are told to evacuate immediately:
- Close and lock your windows
- Shut off all vents
- Lock the door
- Move quickly and calmly
You do not need to turn off your refrigerator or freezer, but you should turn off all other appliances and lights before locking your home as you leave.
Check on neighbors to make sure they have been notified, and offer help to those with functional and access needs. If you need a ride, ask a neighbor. If no neighbor is available to help you, listen to the emergency broadcast station for further instructions.
Take only one car to the evacuation site.
Close your car windows and air vents and turn off the heater or air conditioner.
Do not take shortcuts because a shortcut may put you in the path of danger. For your safety, follow the exact route you are told to take.
Emergency Procedures for School Children
In an emergency, your children may be sheltered in place or evacuated from school.
If protective actions are being taken at your children's school, do not go to the school. School personnel are trained to handle emergencies.
Do not call your child's school. You could tie up a phone line that is needed for emergency communications.
For further information, listen to local emergency radio and TV stations to learn when and where you can pick up your children.
There are several symptoms of chemical poisoning whether by swallowing, touching, or breathing:
- Difficulty breathing - Changes in skin color
- Headache or blurred vision - Dizziness
- Irritated eyes, skin, throat - Unusual behavior
- Clumsiness or lack of coordination - Stomach cramps or diarrhea
If you think you have been exposed to a toxic chemical, call the poison control center, EMS, or 9-1-1.
If you see or smell something which you think may be dangerous, or find someone who has been overcome with toxic vapors, your first job is to make sure that you don't become a victim. If you remain in a dangerous area and become injured or unconscious, you can not help yourself or any victims.
Because chemical poisoning can be a life threatening emergency:
- Send someone to call EMS, immediately.
- Tell the operator the location of the emergency and the phone number from where you are calling.
- Describe what has happened, how many people are involved and what is being done to help.
- Stay on the phone until the operator tells you to hang up.
If you are trained in CPR or first aid, and feel confident that you are not in danger, check the person for life-threatening injuries. Administer appropriate treatment, and then deal with the chemical injuries.
Who Helps In A Chemical Emergency?
There are many organizations which help the community in an emergency, such as police, fire and sheriff departments, American Red Cross, hospitals and clinics, and other government agencies. All these groups coordinate their activities through the local office of emergency management. In many areas there are local Hazardous Materials Teams, or Haz-Mat Teams, who are trained to respond to chemical accidents. In the event of a chemical emergency it is very important that you follow the instructions of these highly trained professionals. They know best how to protect you and your family.
Important Points To Remember:
- Chemicals are everywhere. They are an important part of life. The most common chemical accidents occur in our own homes and they can be prevented.
- The best ways to avoid chemical accidents are to read and follow the directions for use, storage and disposal of the product. Do not mix products, especially household cleaning products.
- Listen to your emergency alert stations on radio and TV.
- Use your phone only in life threatening emergencies, and then call the Poison Control Center, EMS, or 9-1-1 immediately.
- If you are told to shelter-in-place, go inside, close all exterior doors and windows and vents and turn off all fans, heating or cooling systems. Take family members and pets to a pre-selected room, seal windows and doors, and listen to emergency alert stations for instructions.
- If you are told to evacuate immediately, take your disaster supplies kits. Pack only the bare essentials, such as medications, and leave your home quickly. Follow the traffic route authorities recommend. Do not take shortcuts on the way to the shelter.
- If you find someone who appears to have been injured from chemical exposure, make sure you are not in danger before administering first aid.
- And lastly, remember, the best way to protect yourself and your family is to be prepared.
FEMA Shelter-in-Place Guidance
FEMA Shelter-in-Place Document